- Biorefinery project
- KaiCell Fibers
- Wood supply
KaiCell's product-strategic concept is made up of three distinct part:
Production which is not converted by the downstream partners will be sold on the international pulp market. As the share of new bioproducts increases, the share of market pulp will fall.
Arbron™ is a registered trademark for both the production process of fiber raw material in the textile industry and the material. Arbron™ is also used as a new textile fiber name.
KaiCell Fibers Ltd and CHTC group have signed a preliminary collaboration agreement regarding the development of Arbron™. Both parties share the objective of bringing Arbron into commercial production, as this will avoid the significant detrimental aspects of the viscose production which is widely practiced in the current manufacturing process in China.
The capacity is 450 000 tonnes of pulp production, and a significant part of the production is processed further into bioproducts.
KaiCell's wood procurement is based on a local fiber, which is purchased locally from reliable woods by trusted wood dealers. By using the local fiber, transport emissions and CO-emissions can be reduced significantly.
The mill uses pulp wood coming mainly from young and middle-aged commercial forests. Thinning ensures healthy growth of forests.
At present, only about half of the annual growth of the forest in Kainuu region is harvested (Source: LUKE). Because of low pulp wood demand, part of the thinning is not made. This has not brought any positive effect to the economic development in the region.
Kaicell Fibers biorefinery uses about 2.5 million m3 pulp wood and sawmill chips annually. The total forest annual growth is 6.9 million m3 in Kainuu. This includes sawlogs, pulp wood and commercial round wood size energy wood. In previous years, the harvesting has been on the level of 3.2 million m3 per year, which is less than half of the forest annual growth.
About a quarter of the forestry land is out of commercial utilization in Kainuu. Over 90% of the forests are certified. KaiCell Fibers support sustainable forestry and will certify its wood procurement system.
The goal is to make an investment decision in 2019, after which a two-year construction phase will begin. The biorefinery production would start in 2021.
The needs of future operations have been taken into account during the mill site planning phase. The design combines the requirements of basic products, downstream products and bioproducts. There will be a new bioecosystem in the area.
The environmental impacts of the biorefinery will be evaluated in the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). During this process, environmental impacts are evaluated, reported and published, and are conducted through both local stakeholders and authorities.
The cellulose production begins by peeling and finishing of raw material, i.e. pulpwood. Wood chips are processed in a digester, where the fibers of the wood are separated from hemicellulose and lignin. The method of making chemical pulp can be the sulphite method or acid sulphite method. The process can be batch or continuous. Batch process has a number of parallel cooking vessels in different stages. They are filled and unloaded one at a time. In continuous process, the process is carried out as a continuous stream in one or two vessels in the series.
The pulp is brownish in color. It is washed and usually bleached. The pulp is dried and delivered for further processing.
The fresh water will be taken from the lake Oulujärvi.
The purified effluents will be passed to the lake Oulujärvi. The selection of technology applied to the process will be based on BAT-principles (BAT = Best Available Technology).
The pulp mill uses sulfuric acid to manufacture bleaching chemicals and to adjust pH in processes. Effluent contains sulphate which is derived from the applications mentioned above. The amount of wastewater’s sulphate can be reduced by optimizing chemical use and seeking substitute alternatives.
Sulphates have been long ceased to be a critical issue in modern pulp mills, nor are they considered an environmental threat to waterways. There are many pulp mills larger than the one planned for Paltamo located by smaller waterways, indicating that Paltamo's load would be lower than for existing pulp mills in Finland and elsewhere. In existing mills, sulphate concentrations are been well controlled using proven technology. The KaiCell pulp mill processes are based on BAT (Best Available Technology).
The water volume of Lake Oulujärvi is 6.7 km3 and its turnover is 0.85 years, meaning it changes in less than one year. KaiCell's wastewater amount is about 0.2 percent of the annual turnover.
This can be illustrated in popular terms.
If Lake Oulujärvi's volume corresponds to a 10l bucket, KaiCell’s purified process water adds two table spoons to the bucket.
If, however, sulphate is considered a table salt, KaiCell's sulphate load is equal to the percentage volume of teaspoon mixed with bucket water.
On the other hand, the recommended amount for sulphate in household water is up to 250 mg/l, corresponding to a teaspoonful sulphate in relation to bucket volume, which would be about 100 times the amount of sulphate discharged by KaiCell.
AOX or chlorinated organic compounds are formed in the pulp bleaching process when chlorine dioxide reacts with residual ligning in the pulp which is brightened.
AOX emissions decreased already in the 90s when elemental chlorine was abandoned as bleaching chemical. Nowadays, when chlorine dioxide is used in bleaching, and oxygen and peroxide are used to minimize its demand, the AOX emissions have declined significantly. Current levels of AOX have been found to have no effect on toxicity of the effluent.
The project will generate around 200 million euros per year. Biorefinery employs directly about 220 people and indirectly over 1 000. The investment is approximately 900 million euros.
Building-time impacts to the economy for a couple of years are also significant.
Several forms of financing are possible, but in principle, KaiCell Fibers is seeking partners to bring the project forward.